Also called as venous, peripheral blood this is the one that returns to the heart in the circulatory system. However, not including the pulmonary vein because it is deoxygenated as well as being rich in carbon dioxide where it releases oxygen and absorbs CO2 in the tissues.
Peripheral blood is typically warmer than the one in the arteries because it has a lower pH, less concentration of glucose, high mixture of urea and other waste products. It can be obtained by phlebotomy or venesection which is done in small quantities by fingerprick. Majority of the medical laboratory examinations are done with such, excluding the arterial blood gases.
Often depicted as blue in color in scientific diagrams, peripheral blood sometimes even appears in the skin. However, it is dark red while arterial blood is bright red which sets the demarcation line between the two. It is actually due to the wavelength phenomenon of light when it shows as dark blue hue. It also has something to do with the reflection of light away from the exterior of the venous tissue especially if the vein is at .02- inches deep or more.
Both the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin is the reason behind the disparity. The red color ultimately roots from the iron atom in heme. When peripheral blood is drawn for a medical test, the dark red color can be detected. However, if it is shown on air, the color will change to bright red.
This is a failure in the nerve to transmit signal to and fro from the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms like loss of sensation and inability to control muscles are commonly produced.
In some cases, intestinal function, abnormal blood pressure, nerve failure and basic involuntary processes are the cause of peripheral neuropathy. It even involves damage to a lone never that gradually affects other multiple nerves.
There are also other reasons why it does not function as it was designed. Specialists have not yet discovered the root behind. It involves more than one specific state associated with neuropathy including:
- hereditary disorders such as Charcot- Marie- Tooth disease and Friedreich’s ataxia
- systemic or metabolic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, dietary deficiencies and kidney failure
- infectious or inflammatory conditions such as AIDS, hepatitis, botulism, diphtheria, HIV, leprosy, lyme, syphillis, sarcoidosis and amyloid
- exposure to toxic compounds such as sniffing glue, nitrus oxide, industrial agents and heavy metals
- miscellaneous causes such as decreased blood flow and prolonged exposure to cold temperature
This is actually not unusual. There are numerous causes like an incidence that varies greatly, depending on the type of nueropathy and diversity of geographic regions. Scientists are not even unified as to what is the real definition of neuropathy because the precise occurrence cannot be determined.